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Taxon profile

family

Keyhole Limpets
Fissurellidae Fleming, 1822

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Mollusca - mollusks »  class Gastropoda - gastropods »  order Lepetellida »  superfamily Fissurelloidea - keyhole limpets

Scientific synonyms

incl. Diodorinae Wenz, 1938, Emarginulinae J. E. Gray, 1834, Fissurellidinae Pilsbry, 1890, Fissurellinae Fleming, 1822, Hemitominae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971, Scutinae Christiaens, 1973
Fissureliidae (misspelling) m

Functions restricted to taxon Fissurellidae

Description

Shell porcellain-like, almost always symmetrical; cap- cup-, or shield-shaped, longer than broad, as a rule with finer or coarser lattice-like sculpture; the primitively-present apex is backwardly rolled in, but is lost in higher forms. Primitively, there is a slit at the anterior margin of the aperture which is joined by a slit band running to the apex and having raised margins and small transverse folds. This slit may, on one hand, become flattened, rarely totally reduced, whereby the slit band also becomes indistinct or disappears; on the other hand, it may be displaced toward the apex, while its marginal part closes, and finally it may completely occupy the position of the reducing apex, while the slit band disappears. This shell hole is roundish, oval, or keyhole-shaped, occasionally of a significant size.
Thiele, J., 1935 (1992); Handbook of Systematic Malacology. Part 1 (Loricata; Gastropoda; Prosobranchia). Translation by Bieler, R. & Mikkelsen, P.M.
Emarginulinae: The radula is characterized by a moderately broad to very broad central plate, the cutting edge of which, just as on the inner intermediate plates, possesses an entire margin or in rare cases (in some species of Emarginula) it is finely denticulate, and by the bicuspid cutting edge of the outermost intermediate plate, the inner cusp of which is always the larger. The posteriorly-directed apex of the shell is frequently retained, although it becomes reduced during the series of genera and becomes replaced by the hole formed from the initial slit; the hole in the most highly evolved forms, is surrounded by an inner callus just as in the Fissurellinae. The shell of the older groups is usually colorless.
Thiele, J., 1935 (1992); Handbook of Systematic Malacology. Part 1 (Loricata; Gastropoda; Prosobranchia). Translation by Bieler, R. & Mikkelsen, P.M.
Fissurellinae: Apex of the adult shell completely reduced; hole more or less large, bordered internally by a callus; surface usually colored and with radial sculpture. Mantle not extending over the shell. Radula with a small central plate, which is about as large as the adjacent plates, considerably narrowed anteriorly, and provided with a small simple cutting edge; the inner intermediate plates also possess small simple cutting edges, whereas the very huge outermost intermediate plate bears a tetracuspid cutting edge, the innermost and outermost cusps of which are smaller than the other two. The innermost lateral plate is fairly large, wing-shaped, without cutting edge; the number of the remaining plates is fairly small, mainly in Macroschisma.


(PARTIAL) KEY
la. Propodium without tentacles 2
b. Propodium with elaborate tentacles 4
2a. Body not or not greatly exceeding size of shell .........Fissurella
b. Body at least twice shell length 3
3a. Foramen oval, central .........Amblychilepas
b. Foramen elongate, posterior .........Macrochisma
4a. Propodium with numerous subequal tentacles .........Medusafissurella
b. Propodial outgrowth with main trunk and side branches .........Dendrofissurella
Thiele, J., 1935 (1992); Handbook of Systematic Malacology. Part 1 (Loricata; Gastropoda; Prosobranchia). Translation by Bieler, R. & Mikkelsen, P.M.
Shell depressly conical, ovate or oblong-ovate, shield-shaped, generally attenuated anteriorly, radiately striated or ribbed, perforated at the summit, orifice oblong, or nearly orbicular, sometimes contracted, sometimes excavated at the sides, most frequently inclined anteriorly.
The Fissurellidae, or Key-hole Limpets, constitute an attractive group, distinguished rather for their beauty and variety of painting, than for any remarkable development of sculpture. The orifice at the summit of the shell, which constitutes the principal character of the genus, is mostly inclined anteriorly, that is, in the direction of that portion of the shell covering the head of the mollusc, and which is generally more or less attenuated. The orifice varies characteristically in form in different species, but not in individuals of the same species. It is mostly oblong, sometimes a little excavated at the sides, but more frequently contracted in the middle, in such a manner as to give a denticulated character to the margin. In one species, F. aperta, the orifice is considerably larger than in any other, and the animal, as figured by M. D'Orbigny, is seven or eight times longer than the shell; in another, F. macroschisma, the orifice is stretched, so to speak, nearly to the anterior basal edge. The sculpture consists of ribs or ridges radiating from the dorsal orifice to the base, and an agreeable pattern is sometimes produced by the development of concentric ridges, which are squamate at the point of crossing.
The largest and most brilliantly painted Fissurellidae are from the western coast of South America. During Mr. Cuming's sojourn in that country, he collected several species on exposed rocks, at low water, larger and finer than any before known. At the Philippine Islands, on the contrary, Mr. Cuming observed only a few species of small size; nor were any collected during the voyage of the Samarang among the Islands of the Eastern Seas at all approaching in size to those of Chili and Peru.
Reeve Conchologica Iconica 06 - 2 Monograph of the genus Fissurella

Interchangeable taxa

Fissurellinae: Fissurelline genera differ from emarginuline genera in the following features: 1) the rachidian plate of the radula has a broad base and a narrow tip, rather than the broad or mod-erately broad tip of the emarginuline rachidian; 2) the large outer lateral tooth is so long that it is aligned with the inner lateral teeth of the row above, rather than the same row as in emarginuline genera (Hickman, 1984); 3) the shell muscle lacks the inwardly directed hook-shaped process of emargi-nuline genera (Odhner, 1932); 4) the selenizone that is present at least in the early juvenile of emarginuline genera is lacking (McLean, 1984a, 1984b).
McLean, J.H. & Kilburn, R.N., 1986; Propodial elaboration in Southern African and Indian Ocean Fissurellidae (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) with descriptions of two new genera and one new species.
Author: Jan Delsing

Recently completed profiles

Diodora graeca (Linnaeus, 1758)
Puncturella noachina (Linnaeus, 1771)
Emarginula fissura (Linnaeus, 1758)
Puncturella capensis Thiele, 1919
Emarginula viridicana D.G. Herbert & R.N. Kilburn, 1986
Emarginula phrygium D.G. Herbert & R.N. Kilburn, 1986
Diodora ticaonica (Reeve, 1850)
Fissurella cyathulum L. A. Reeve, 1850
Diodora catilla L. A. Reeve, 1850
Diodora mus L. A. Reeve, 1850

Included taxa

Number of records: 45

genus Altrix Palmer, 1942
genus Amblychilepas Pilsbry, 1890
genus Buchanania Lesson, 1831
genus Clathrosepta McLean & Geiger, 1998
genus Clypidina Gray, 1847
genus Cornisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998
genus Cosmetalepas Iredale, 1924
genus Cranopsis Adams, 1860
genus Dendrofissurella J.H. McLean & R.N. Kilburn, 1986
genus Diodora Gray, 1821
genus Emarginella Pilsbry, 1890
genus Emarginula Lamarck, 1801
genus Fissurella Bruguière, 1798
genus Fissurellidea Orbigny, 1841
genus Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1863
genus Hemimarginula McLean, 2011
genus Hemitoma Swainson, 1840
genus Laeviemarginula Habe in Kuroda, 1953
genus Laevinesta Pilsbry & McGinty, 1952
genus Leurolepas J. H. McLean, 1970
genus Lucapina Sowerby, 1835
genus Lucapinella Pilsbry, 1890
genus Macroschisma Sowerby, 1839
genus Manganesepta McLean & Geiger, 1998
genus Medusafissurella McLean & Kilburn, 1986
genus Megathura Pilsbry, 1890
genus Monodilepas Finlay, 1926
genus Montfortia Récluz, 1843
genus Montfortista Iredale, 1929
genus Montfortula Iredale, 1915
genus Montfortulana Habe, 1961
genus Octomarginula McLean, 2011
genus Parmaphorella Strebel, 1907
genus Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998
genus Puncturella Lowe, 1827
genus Pupillaea Gray in G. B. Sowerby I, 1835
genus Rimula DeFrance, 1827
genus Rixa Iredale, 1924
genus Scelidotoma McLean, 1966
genus Scutus Montfort, 1810
genus Stromboli Berry, 1954
genus Tugali Gray In Dieffenbach, 1843
genus Tugalina Habe, 1953
genus Vacerrena Iredale, 1958
genus Zeidora A. Adams, 1860

Links and literature

EN Australian Faunal Directory [4888a79e-2c88-407d-9605-916a943b1d00]

ABRS (2009-2019): Australian Faunal Directory [https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/home], Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra [as Hemitominae]
Data retrieved on: 15 February 2015
EN Australian Faunal Directory [6447732c-50b7-4149-b6d1-1ae0cb49a437]

ABRS (2009-2019): Australian Faunal Directory [https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/home], Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra [as Fissurellinae]
Data retrieved on: 15 February 2015
EN Australian Faunal Directory [792e5a0a-3380-42b1-9a03-45b06447d891]

ABRS (2009-2019): Australian Faunal Directory [https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/home], Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra [as Diodorinae]
Data retrieved on: 15 February 2015
EN Australian Faunal Directory [dbaa428e-3c9b-4c0d-8233-b486851de3b3]

ABRS (2009-2019): Australian Faunal Directory [https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/home], Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra [as Fissurellidae]
Data retrieved on: 15 February 2015
EN Australian Faunal Directory [f49ba40c-22fe-4d1e-8ad7-9973e80fed53]

ABRS (2009-2019): Australian Faunal Directory [https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/home], Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra [as Emarginulinae]
Data retrieved on: 15 February 2015
CZ Pfleger V. (1999): České názvy živočichů III. Měkkýši (Mollusca), Národní muzeum, (zoologické odd.), Praha, 108 pp. [as Fissureliidae]
Data retrieved on: 11 November 2013

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Explanations

m misspelling