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Taxon profile

species

Baramundi Cod
Chromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Chromileptes

Scientific synonyms

Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)
Cromileptis altivales (Valenciennes, 1828)
Cromileptis altiveles (Valenciennes, 1828)
Cromileptis altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)
Epinephelus altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)
Serranus altivelis Valenciennes, 1828

Other names

= Barramundi Cod
= Barrimundi Cod
= Bleeker's Group
= Flatfish Grouper
= Highfinned Grouper
= Humpback Grouper

Vulnerable

Images


juvenile animal

skull

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Description

Body compressed, the depth less than head length, and contained 2.6 to 3.0 times in standard length (for fish 12 to 37 cm standard length); body width contained 2.4 to 2.6 times in the depth. Head length contained 2.5 to 2.8 times in standard length; dorsal head profile distinctly concave, rising steeply at the nape; preorbital very narrow, its depth contained about 5 times in eye diameter and 30 to 32 times in head length; preopercle finely serrate, the serrae at the angle slightly enlarged, the lower edge smooth: opercle with middle spine inconspicuous, the upper and lower spines rudimentary; posterior nostril a large, crescentic, vertical slit; maxilla extending to below rear half of eye; no step or knob on ventral edge of maxilla; supramaxilla well developed; jaws with bands of villiform teeth; no canines; palatines with teeth. Gill rakers short, 8 to 11 on upper limb, 13 to 17 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with X spines and 17 to 19 rays, the fin origin over opercle, the fin membranes not incised between the spines, the posterior spines longest and the soft-rays even longer; anal fin with III spines and 9 or 10 rays; pectoral fins rounded, with 17 or 18 rays; the middle rays longest; caudal fin rounded, with 8 branched rays and 8 procurrent rays in upper part and 7 branched rays and 8 procurrent rays in lower part. Scales on body smooth (the ctenii greatly reduced); lateral-line scales 54 to 62; lateral-scale series 106 to 122. Pyloric caeca 13. Supraneural bones slender, the second more than half length of first; no trisegmental pterygiophores in dorsal or anal fins; rear edge of first dorsal pterygiophore slightly excavated; epipleural ribs on vertebrae 1 to 8; cranium elongate, depressed anteriorly and elevated posteriorly; least interorbital width about 10% of cranium length; postorbital part of cranium elongated, 60% or more of cranium length; supraoccipital crest not extending onto frontals. Colour: Pale greenish brown, with widely-spaced, round, black spots on head, body, and fins; some spots on body and base of median fins overlain by a large dusky blotch. Black spots on juveniles fewer than on adults and may be as large or larger than eye.

Distribution

Western Pacific from southern Japan to Palau, Guam, New Caledonia, and southern Queensland (Australia); in the eastern Indian Ocean from the Nicobars to Broome, Western Australia. Reports of Cromileptes from the western Indian Ocean (Heemstra and Randall, 1984, 1986) are unsubstantiated, although one by Smith (1954) from Kenya seems valid. Records from the Hawaiian Islands are probably based on released aquarium fishes (Randall and Heemstra, 1991).

Ecology

Cromileptes occurs on well-developed coral reefs as well as in dead or silty reef areas. It is found in tide pools and is also caught at depths of 40 m. Artificial spawning was accomplished by Tang et al. (1979). Mature eggs were buoyant, 0.80 to 0.83 mm in diameter with a single oil droplet; the larvae died after 7 days. Growth of Cromileptes in captivity is very slow.

Size

Maximum 70 cm total length.

Sources

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [6457]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase [http://www.fishbase.org]
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/30769]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [http://aquatab.net] [as Chromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [39774]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [http://www.iucnredlist.org/] [as Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes, 1828)]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018

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