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Taxon profile

species

White-lined Grouper
Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1828)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Anyperodon

Scientific synonyms

Serranus leucogrammicus Valenciennes, 1828
Anyperodon leucogammicus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Anyperodon leucogramicus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Anyperodon leucogrammiscus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Serranus micronotatus Rüppell, 1838
Serranus urophthalmus Bleeker, 1855

Other names

= White-lined Rock-cod
= White-lined Rockcod
= Whiteline Group

Least Concern LC

Images

Description

Body and head elongate and markedly compressed, the depth distinctly less than head length and contained 3.1 to 3.7 times in standard length (for fish 10 to 40 cm standard length), the body width contained 2.3 to 2.8 times in the depth. Head pointed, its length contained 2.3 to 2.5 times in standard length; interorbital region narrow, slightly concave, flat or slightly convex; dorsal head profile almost straight; preorbital narrow, its depth contained 14 to 17 times in head length; snout distinctly longer than eye; preopercle rounded, finely serrate, the lower serrae only slightly enlarged, the lower edge fleshy; ventral edge of interopercle with a shallow indentation; opercular spines small, the upper edge of operculum distinctly convex; diameter of posterior nostrils about twice that of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches well past eye, the exposed part covered with tiny cycloid scales; no bony process on rear end of maxilla; supramaxilla well developed; no teeth on palatines; canines at front of jaws rudimentary or absent; teeth at sides of lower jaw subequal, in 2 or 3 irregular rows. Gill rakers 7 to 9 on upper limb, 14 to 17 on lower limb, the longest gill raker subequal to longest gill filaments. Dorsal fin with XI spines and 14 to 16 rays, the fin origin over the opercle, the membranes distinctly incised between the spines; anal fin with III spines and 8 or 9 rays; soft dorsal and anal fins rounded; pectoral and pelvic fins small, subequal, their length contained 1.9 to 2.4 times in head length; pectoral fins thin, transparent and symmetrical; pelvic fins not reaching anus; caudal fin rounded, with 8 branched rays and 10 procurrent rays in upper part and 7 branched rays and 9 procurrent rays in lower part. Midlateral-body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 61 to 72; lateral-scale series 106 to 125. Supraneural bones 2, the posterior one curving forward and situated dorsal to tip of first neural spine; no trisegmental pterygiophores; rear edge of first dorsal-fin pterygiophore deeply excavated for tip of third neural spine; epipleural ribs on vertebrae 1 to 10; cranium low, the greatest height about 3 times in its length; parietal and median supraoccipital crests inconspicuous, not reaching frontals; frontals with an anterior median depression for reception of the tips of the ascending processes of the premaxillae.
Colour: Adults greenish to brownish grey with numerous orange-red spots on head, body, dorsal fin, and basally on caudal fin; 4 longitudinal whitish bands or series of streaks often visible on postorbital head and body; membranes of soft dorsal, anal, and caudal fins clear. Juveniles (less than 8 cm total length) with longitudinal, dark-edged, pale bluish grey stripes on a gold background; a blue-edged black spot (or double spot) at base of caudal fin and in dorsal fin; an elongate, blackish spot often present on each side of snout in front of nostrils.

Distribution

Red Sea to Mozambique and east to the. Marshall Islands, Samoa, and the Phoenix islands; Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and probably all of the islands of the tropical Indian Ocean.

Ecology

Anyperodon is a coralreef species usually found on protected reefs in depths of 5 to 80 m. Adults are primarily piscivorous. According to Randall and Kuiter (1989) the distinctive blue and gold striped juveniles are mimics of the wrasse, Halichoeres purpurescens (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) and related species with a similar colour pattern. These wrasses feed on micro-invertebrates (much smaller than the food of like-sized Anyperodon), and this mimetic association presumably allows Anyperodon (in the guise of a harmless wrasse) to approach the small fishes and crustaceans on which it feeds.

Size

Maximum total length at least 52 cm.

Sources

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [4922]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase [http://www.fishbase.org]
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/1336]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [http://aquatab.net] [as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1828)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [132787]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [http://www.iucnredlist.org/] [as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1828)]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1828)]
Data retrieved on: 19 August 2019

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