Taxon profile


Flag Cabrilla
Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Epinephelus

Scientific synonyms

Serranus labriformis Jenyns, 1840
Epinephelus ordinatus Cope, 1871
Epinephelus sellicauda Gill, 1862

Other names

= Grouper
= Lateralband Grouper
= Red-tipped
= Rock Bass

Least Concern LC


Epinephelus labriformis - Flag Cabrilla

Author: Jo Kuyken


Body depth distinctly less than head length, depth contained 2.7 to 3.1 times in standard length (for fish 10 to 33 cm standard length). Head length contained 2.2 to 2.5 times in standard length; interorbital area flat; preopercle rounded, finely serrate, the ventral serrae slightly enlarged; subopercle and interopercle smooth; upper edge of operculum slightly convex; nostrils subequal. Gill rakers 7 to 9 on upper limb, 15 to 17 on lower limb, 23 to 26 total. Dorsal fin with XI spines and 16 to 18 rays, the third or fourth spine longest (longer than the longest dorsal-fin ray) and the interspinous membranes moderately incised; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays; pectoral-fin rays 18 or 19; pelvic fins much shorter than pectoral fins, their origin below or behind pectoral-fin base; caudal fin rounded. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, with a few auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 48 to 51; lateral-scale series 84 to 100.
Colour: Generally olive-green to reddish brown with scattered irregular white spots and blotches; white triangle at margin of interspinous dorsal-fin membranes and a bright white tag at tip of each spine; juveniles with black spots on top of head and median fins reddish distally with white edge; small black saddle on peduncle; inside of mouth red.


Eastern Pacific from Gulf of California to Peru, including the offshore islands of Cocos, Revillagigedo, and Galapagos.


A common shallow-water species of rocky shores, E. labriformis is a secretive predator that feeds on small fishes during the day and mainly on crustaceans at night. Although the species is most abundant near shore, adults also occur to depths of at least 30 m.


Maximum total length about 50 cm.


Lopez Lemus (1988) reckoned that his electrophoretic isozyme data show that E. labriformis is more closely related to Cephalopholis panamensis than it is to either E. analogus or E. acanthistius. But his biochemical evidence for this relationship is very tenuous, namely that C. panamensis and E. labriformis have two enzyme alleles in common that are not shared with E. analogus, while E. labriformis and E. analogus share only one allele that is not also seen in C. panamensis. Since this supposed close relationship of C. panamensis and E. labriformis is indicated by only a single allele, and, in view of the fact that Lopez Lemus has done no comparisons with the enzymes of outgroups in order to infer the polarity of this single allele, his evidence for a sister group relationship between these two species is unconvincing. And Heemstra and Randall (1993) have recently discovered additional morphological differences between C. panamensis and E. labriformis (e.g., in the shape of the maxilla and presence or absence of trisegmental pterygiophores in the dorsal and anal fins), which indicate that these two species are not congeneric.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [8196]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase []
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/8483]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [] [as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [132750]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [] [as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840)]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840)]
Data retrieved on: 19 August 2019

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