Taxon profile


Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean, 1878

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Epinephelus

Critically Endangered CR


Body depth subequal to head length, depth contained 2.4 to 2.6 times in standard length (for fish 20 to 43 cm standard length). Interorbital area distinctly convex; preopercle evenly serrate, without salient angle; interopercle and subopercle finely serrate, but the serrae covered by skin; nostrils subequal. Gill rakers 9 or 10 on upper limb’and 17 or 18 on lower limb, total 26 to 28. Dorsal fin with XI spines and 15 or 16 rays, the membrane incised between the anterior spines; anal fin with III spines and 9 rays; pectoral-fin rays 18; caudal fin truncate or slightly emarginate, the corners acute. Scales strongly ctenoid, with numerous auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 72 to 76, about 125 lateral-scale series.
Colour: Adults (greater than 30 cm standard length) dark reddish brown, densely covered with small pearly white spots; pectoral fins yellowish distally. Juveniles (15 to 27 cm standard length) are bright yellow covered with small bluish white spots.


Bermuda and the coast of the USA from North Carolina to the Florida Keys and in the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Reports of speckled hind from Cuba and the Bahamas are unsubstantiated.


Adults inhabit offshore rocky bottoms in depths of 25 to 183 m but are most common between 60 and 120 m. Females are mature at 4 or 5 years of age and a total length of 45 to 60 cm. Spawning occurs from July to September, and a large female may produce up to 2 000 000 eggs at one spawning. Data on age and growth were reported by Matheson and Huntsman (1984): Back calculated total lengths for fish aged 1 to 15 years are respectively 186, 317, 408, 475, 528, 572,613, 645, 678, 709, 739, 774, 804, 839, and 861 mm: the maximum age attained is at least 25 years, and the largest specimen measured was 110 cm. The weight/length relationship is W =1.1x 10-8L3.073 for W in kilogrammes and L (total length) in millimetres. The von Bertalanffy growth equation is Lt = 967(1-e-0.13(t+1.01)). Adults feed on a variety of fishes and invertebrates, including shrimps, crabs, scyllarid lobsters, squid, and octopus.


Maximum total length about 110 cm; maximum weight 30 kg. The IGFA all-tackle record (as of 1990) is 19.23 kg.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [1204]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase []
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/8459]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [] [as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean, 1878]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [7854]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [] [as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean, 1878]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean, 1878]
Data retrieved on: 19 August 2019

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