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Taxon profile

species

Banded Grouper
Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Epinephelus

Scientific synonyms

Serranus amblycephalus Bleeker, 1857

Description

Body depth less than head length, depth contained 2.5 to 3.0 times in standard length (for fish 12 to 35 cm standard length). Head length contained 2.1 to 2.4 times in standard length; preopercle rounded, with 3 to 6 enlarged serrae at the “corner”; upper edge of operculum slightly convex; nostrils subequal or posterior nostril larger than anterior; maxilla scaly, reaching about to vertical at rear edge of eye; midside of lower jaw with 2 rows of teeth. Gill rakers 8 on upper limb, 14 to 16 on lower limb, 22 to 24 total. Dorsal fin with XI spines and 15 or 16 rays, the third or fourth spine longest, contained 2.7 to 3.2 times in head length, the interspinous membranes only slightly incised; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays; pectoral fins with 18 or 19 rays, pectoral-fin length equal to pelvic-fin length, contained 1.7 to 2.3 times in head length; caudal fin rounded. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, with a few auxiliary scales in adults; lateral-line scales 47 to 52; lateral-scale series 90 to 121.
Colour: Head, body, and median fins pale grey; body with 4 broad dark brown bars, the first two extending into spinous part of dorsal fin, the third and fourth bars extending into soft dorsal and anal fins; a fifth dark bar at base of caudal fin; small black spots on dorsal Parts of bodv bars (mainly along the edges of the bars); dark brown saddle blotch on nape, with small black spots mainly along edge of this-blotch; cheeks, snout,interorbital area, jaws, and chest mostly dark brown, with 2 or 3 white bands radiating from eye; irregular black bar on middle of caudal fin; maxillary groove yellow; ventral parts of head and body often with a pinkish tinge. Small juveniles (6 cm standard length) white, with black bars on body as described for adults, the fins pale yellow with small black spots.

Distribution

E. amblycephalus is known from the Andaman Sea to southern Japan, Taiwan, China, Philippines, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, New Guinea, northwestern Australia, and Fiji. It is not known east of New Guinea except for the record of a specimen at Fiji (based on a photograph supplied by Tony Lewis).

Ecology

Coral and rocky reefs in depths of 80 to 130 m. Tseng and Chan (1985) discussed food, rearing procedures, and larval development of specimens from Hong Kong.

Size

Maximum total length 50 cm.

Sources

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/8439]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [http://aquatab.net] [as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [6459]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase [http://www.fishbase.org]
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013.2 [132812]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [http://www.iucnredlist.org/] [as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1857)]
Data retrieved on: 27 January 2014

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