Taxon profile


Niger Hind
Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Cephalopholis

Scientific synonyms

Serranus nigri Günther, 1859
Epinephelus nigri (Günther, 1859)
Petrometopon nigri (Günther, 1859)
Serranus cruentatus (non Peters, 1876)
Serranus lineo-ocellatus Guichenot, 1861

Other names

= Niger Seabass
= Orange-spotted Sea Perch

Least Concern LC


Body depth distinctly less than head length, the depth contained 2.8 to 3.0 times in standard length (for fish 11 to 15 cm standard length). Head length contained 2.5 to 2.6 times in standard length; eye diameter greater than interorbital width, eye diameter contained 4.6 to 5.5 times in head length; interorbital area flat; preopercle rounded, finely serrate, the lower edge fleshy; subopercle and interopercle smooth; upper edge of pperculum convex; maxilla scaly, reaching well past eye. Gill rakers 8 to 10 on upper limb, 14 to 17 on lower limb; 5 or 6 rudiments on each limb. Dorsal fin with IX spines and 14 or 15 rays, the membranes distinctly indented between the spines; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays; pectoral-fin rays 17 or 18; pectoral-fin length contained 1.4 to 1.7 times in head length; pelvic fins reach anus, their length contained 1.6 to 1.9 times in head length; caudal fin rounded. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 45 to 50; lateral-scale series 73 to 80.
Colour: Dark brownish, with 3 or 4 indistinct dark bars on body (extending onto dorsal fin) and 2 more on caudal peduncle; belly reddish; sides of head with close-set reddish spots forming a reticulated pattern of dark lines; pelvic and anal fins dusky, with small pale (silvery?) spots; tips of interspinous dorsal-fin membranes black. A 13 cm (total length) juvenile from the Canary Islands has red spots all over the head and body.


Tropical eastern Atlantic from Senegal to Lobito, Angola, also Canary Islands (Tenerife).


Mud, sand, and rock bottoms from shore to depths of probably around 50 m. Occasionally found in estuaries.


Maximum total length 30 cm.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [9202]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase []
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/5349]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [] [as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [132742]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [] [as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859)]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859)]
Data retrieved on: 19 August 2019

Contributions to BioLib

Help us to expand this encyclopedia! If you are logged in, you can add new subtaxa, vernacular and scientific names, texts, images or intertaxon relationships for this taxon.