Taxon profile


Coral Hind
Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Chordata - chordates »  class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes »  order Perciformes - perch-likes »  family Serranidae - sea basses and groupers »  genus Cephalopholis

Scientific synonyms

Perca miniata Forsskål, 1775
Serranus miniatus (Forsskål, 1775)
Cephalopolis miniatus (Forsskål, 1775)
Epinephelus miniatus (Forsskål, 1775)
Cephalopholis miniatus (Forsskål, 1775)
Cephalopholis boninius Jordan & Thompson, 1914
Pomacentrus burdi Lacépède, 1802
Serranus cyanostigmatoides Bleeker, 1849
Cephalopholis formosanus Tanaka, 1911
Cephalopholis maculatus Seale & Bean, 1907

Other names

= Blue-spotted Grouper
= Blue-spotted Rockcod
= Bluespot Rockcod
= Coral Cod
= Coral Grouper
= Coral Rock Cod

= Coral Trout
= Jewel Grouper
= Red Coral Perch
= Vermilion Grouper
= Vermilion Seabass

Least Concern LC


Cephalopholis miniata - Coral Hind

Author: Ivan Mikšík

Cephalopholis miniata - Coral Hind

Author: Mr. Mohammed Al Momany

Cephalopholis miniata - Coral Hind

Author: Klaus Rudloff

Cephalopholis miniata - Coral Hind

Author: Klaus Rudloff

CZ   EN  


Body depth contained 2.6 to 3.0 times in standard length (for fish 10 to 30 cm standard length). Head length contained 2.4 to 2.6 times in standard length; interorbital area flat to slightly convex; preopercle rounded, finely serrate, the lower edge fleshy; upper edge of operculum very convex; maxilla scaly, reaching to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye. Gill rakers 7 to 9 on upper limb, 14 to 16 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with IX spines and 14 to 16 rays, the membranes distinctly indented between the spines; anal fin with III spines and 9 (rarely 8) rays, the fin margin rounded in adults; pectoral-fin rays 17 or 18, pectoral-fin length contained 1.4 to 1.75 times in head length; pelvic fins usually not reaching anus, their length contained 1.9 to 2.3 times in head length; caudal fin well rounded. Midlateral-body scales ctenoid; no auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 47 to 56; lateral-scale series 94 to 114.
Colour: Orange-red to reddish brown, covered with small (usually dark-edged) pale blue-grey spots; pectoral fins orange-yellow distally; soft dorsal, caudal, and anal fins often with a narrow blue margin and blackish submarginal line; pelvic fins orange-red, the distal edge dark bluish grey. Juveniles more yellowish, with faint pale blue spots, fewer than in adults.


Tropical Indo-Pacific and Red Sea (but not the Persian Gulf or French Polynesia), from the African coast (south to Durban, South Africa) to the Line Islands in the central Pacific, including most islands in the Indian and west-central Pacific oceans, southern Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, and the islands of Micronesia. One specimen, presumably an immigrant from the Red Sea, was reported from the Gulf of Genoa in the Mediterranean Sea (Torchio in Hureau and Monod, 1978:359).


C. miniata is usually found on well-developed exposed coral reefs in clear water at depths of 2 to 150 m. Shpigel and Fishelson (1989) found that it feeds mainly during the early morning (07.00 to 09.00 h) and midafternoon (14.00 to 16.00 h). Most of the prey (86%) were fishes that school just above the reef (predominantly Pseudanthias squamipinnis), and most of these were caught by a quick rush (“ambush attack”) from the bottom. The remaining 14% of the food comprised crustaceans. C. miniata forms haremic groups comprising a dominant male and 2 to 12 females. These groups occupy territories of up to 475 m2, subdivided into secondary territories, which are defended by a single female (Shpigel and Fishelson, 1991). Morgans (1982) reported sexual maturity (females?) at 25 cm standard length, and fishes as the only food item in the 6 specimens with stomach contents that he examined.


Maximum total length about 40 cm.

Interchangeable taxa

See information under "Interchangeable Taxa" in Cephalopholis hemistiktos profile.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993, Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E., FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rock cod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
Author: Petr Čech

Links and literature

CH DE EN FR IT NL PR SP FishBase [6450]

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase []
CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [species/5348]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [] [as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775)]
Data retrieved on: 17 January 2010
EN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [132732]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [] [as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775)]
Data retrieved on: 3 August 2018
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775)]
Data retrieved on: 19 August 2019

Contributions to BioLib

Help us to expand this encyclopedia! If you are logged in, you can add new subtaxa, vernacular and scientific names, texts, images or intertaxon relationships for this taxon.