Taxon profile


Bolma rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Mollusca - mollusks »  class Gastropoda - gastropods »  family Turbinidae - Turbans and Star Shells »  genus Bolma

Scientific synonyms

Turbo rugosus Linnaeus, 1767
Astraea rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)
Astrea rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)
Astralium rugosum (Linnaeus, 1767)
Turbo armatus Dillwyn, 1817
Turbo rugosus var. asus de Gregorio, 1885
Turbo rugosus var. asdiuca de Gregorio, 1885
Solarium calcar O. Costa, 1861
Astraea rugosa granuloides Nordsieck, 1982
Turbo rugosus var. pera de Gregorio, 1885


Taxon in country check-lists*

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The juvenile shells have some fairly defined spines that, once adults, become simple protuberances, but often some spinosities persist in adult specimens too. In the young shells the umbilicus is opened, while in the adults it is completely closed. It is a phytophagous species. It feeds on rubbles and algae. There were recorded some cases in which, once placed in a test-tank, it ate up specimens of Codium bursa alga and of Udotea genus wholly, and damaged Peyssonnielia squamaria laminae.The calcareous operculum is a typical one: orange in colour externally. It is also characteristic the peristome margin, white in colour internally. The average measures of an adult are abt. 50 mm.
Dark brown in colour, often covered by Vermetidae and calcareous algae.
Scaperrotta, M. ,Bartolini, S. & Bogi, C., 2009. Accrescimenti, Vol. 1. Stages of growth of marine molluscs of the Mediterranean Sea.


Common enough all over the Mediterranean. This species lives mainly between 5 and 50 m depth, on rocky, detrital bottoms and Posidonia oceanica meadows. It reproduces between March and July.
Author: Jan Delsing

Links and literature

EN Galli C.: WMSDB - Wolrdwide Mollusc Species Data Base July 10, 2013 [] [as Bolma rugosa Linnaeus, 1767]
Data retrieved on: 23 November 2013
DE Zootier-Lexikon [7325:mollusca-gastropoda-turbinidae&Itemid=726]

Dollinger P.: Zootier-Lexikon [as Bolma rugosa]
Data retrieved on: 7 January 2021
CZ Pfleger V. (1999): České názvy živočichů III. Měkkýši (Mollusca), Národní muzeum, (zoologické odd.), Praha, 108 pp. [as Bolma rugosa (LINNÉ, 1767)]
Data retrieved on: 11 November 2013
IT Repetto G., Orlando F. & Arduino G. (2005): Conchiglie del Mediterraneo, Amici del Museo "Federico Eusebio", Alba, Italy [as Bolma rugosa (Linné, 1767)]
EN Petović S., Gvozdenović S., Ikica Z. (2017): An Annotated Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of the South Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) and a Comparison with Those of Neighbouring Areas, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17: 921-934 [as Bolma rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)]
SP Prats Pi, L. (2002): Gastròpodes marins de la cala de Binissafúller, Menorca (Illes Balears), Spira, 1(2): 21-24 [as Bolma rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767)]
SP Tarruella Ruestes, A. & Fontanet Giner, M. (2001): Moluscos marinos del Golf de Sant Jordi (L'Ampolla) y del Port dels Alfacs, Spira, 1(1): 1-5 [as Astraea rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758)]

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