CZ EN
SEARCH  

Taxon profile

species

Purple dye murex
Bolinus brandaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Mollusca - mollusks »  class Gastropoda - gastropods »  order Neogastropoda »  family Muricidae - Muricids »  genus Bolinus

Scientific synonyms

Murex brandaris Linnaeus, 1758 o
Murex brandaris var. aculeata Philippi, 1836
Murex brandaris var. adunca Coen, 1933
Bolinus adunca (Coen, 1933)
Bolinus brandaris var. adunca (Coen, 1933)
Murex brandaris var. bicaudata Coen, 1933
Bolinus bicaudata (Coen, 1933)
Bolinus brandaris var. bicaudata (Coen, 1933)
Murex brandaris var. bifida Coen, 1937
Murex brandariformis Locard, 1886

Other names

= Spiny dye-murex

Images

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Jiří Novák

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Jan Ševčík

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Jan Ševčík

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Jan Delsing

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Jan Delsing

Bolinus brandaris - Purple dye murex

Author: Klaus Rudloff

Taxon in country check-lists*

* List of countries might not be complete

Description

The shell is moderately large (maximum length 90 mm) and club-sharked. Its spire is moderarely low, with two nuclear whorls and five shouldered postnuclear whorls. The suture is deeply impressed, and this feature is emphasized by a depressed area on the shoulder immediately abutting the suture. The body whorl is moderately large, as high as broad. The aperture is broadly ovate, with an anal sulcus posteriorly and a strong constriction anteriorly, at the top of the siphonal canal. The outer apertural lip is thickened, with a crenulate leading edge, the crenulations coinciding with short lirae that extend for some distance into the aperture. The columellar lip adheres to the body whorl above, forming a parietal callus that reaches the shoulder; below, the columellar lip is detached from the body whorl and developed into a prominent flaring inductura with a strongly concave inner surface. The siphonal canal is long, tubelike, narrowly open, and slightly recurved; to the side of the canal is a ridge composed of the vestiges of former canals.
The body whorl bears six or seven varices, these proceeding obliquely across the shoulder to coincide with those on the former whorl. Spiral sculpture consists of many fine spiral threads and two or exceptionally three prominent cords. Where these cords cross the varices, short, broad-based, blunt or sharp spines are developed: the uppermost spiral row of spines, at the shoulder, is made up of moderately long, narrowly open spines; a second row, around the middle of the body whorl, is made up of shorter, completely closed spines; a third row of finer, narrowly open spines obliquely encircles the siphonal canal from just below the inductura to a point about one-third of the way down the canal.
Shell color is pale fleshy orange, with three faint brown spiral bands on the body whorl.
Radwin, G.E. & D'Attilio, A., 1976. Murex Shells of the World. An Illustrated Guide to the Muricidae.
Shell up to 120 mm in length with 1.75-2.25 protoconch whorls and 7 teleoconch whorls. Protoconch globose, smooth, glossy. Whorls rounded.
Axial sculpture of last teleoconch whorl with 6, occasionally 5 or 7. low, flat varices, each with 2, occasionally 1 or 3, rarely 4, short or moderately long spines, sometimes reduced to low knobs. Spiral sculpture of numerous, squamous cords and threads of various strength.
Aperture large, roundly-ovate. Outer lip strongly crenulate. smooth within. Columellar lip smooth, flaring, partially adherent adapically. Siphonal canal long, straight, open, with a single row of short, abapically bent spines adaperturally, occasionally smooth. Pale tan or tan. Aperture white, tan, yellow, pale peach or apricot.
Rachidian radular tooth with long, broad, central cusp, one small lateral denticle, and one long lateral cusp on each side.
Bolinus brandaris is a common commercial species, fished for seafood. It is probably not the most variable species of the Muricidae, but it is certainly one which received a very large number of names to designate all the forms, even minor variations (see synonymy). It was used by Romans to produce the Tyrian purple. A sinistral specimen from Chioggia (Italy) was illustrated by Cecalupo (1984) while many other monstrosities are known (Settepassi, 1972).
Houart, R., 2001. A Review of the Recent Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic Species of Muricidae.

Interchangeable taxa

It is distinguishable from B. cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758) in usually having only a single row of spines on the siphonal canal, instead of two rows in B. cornutus, and in being generally of smaller size, with higher spire and shorter, straighter spines.
Houart, R., 2001. A Review of the Recent Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic Species of Muricidae.

Distribution

Central and western Mediterranean.
Radwin, G.E. & D'Attilio, A., 1976. Murex Shells of the World. An Illustrated Guide to the Muricidae.
Probably throughout the Mediterranean Sea, but I have not seen material from Algeria and Libya. European side of the Ibero-Moroccan Gulf, and Portugal as far north as Cascais, usually on sandy bottom, at 0-150 m. On the North African shore, there is a sharp western limit at Tangier, where it is rare.
Houart, R., 2001. A Review of the Recent Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic Species of Muricidae.
Author: Jan Delsing

Included taxa

Number of records: 2

subspecies Bolinus brandaris cagliaritanus F. Settepassi, 1977

Bolinus brandaris cagliaritanus

subspecies Bolinus brandaris longispinus G.S. Coen, 1914

Bolinus brandaris longispinus


Links and literature

EN Galli C.: WMSDB - Wolrdwide Mollusc Species Data Base July 10, 2013 [http://www.bagniliggia.it/WMSD/WMSDhome....] [as Bolinus brandaris Linnaeus, 1758]
Data retrieved on: 23 November 2013
DE Zootier-Lexikon [6463:mollusca-gastropoda-muricidae&Itemid=726]

Dollinger P.: Zootier-Lexikon [as Bolinus brandaris]
Data retrieved on: 7 January 2021
CZ Pfleger V. (1999): České názvy živočichů III. Měkkýši (Mollusca), Národní muzeum, (zoologické odd.), Praha, 108 pp. [as Bolinus brandaris (LINNÉ, 1758)]
Data retrieved on: 11 November 2013
IT Repetto G., Orlando F. & Arduino G. (2005): Conchiglie del Mediterraneo, Amici del Museo "Federico Eusebio", Alba, Italy [as Bolinus brandaris (Linné, 1758)]
EN Petović S., Gvozdenović S., Ikica Z. (2017): An Annotated Checklist of the Marine Molluscs of the South Adriatic Sea (Montenegro) and a Comparison with Those of Neighbouring Areas, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 17: 921-934 [as Bolinus brandaris (Linnaeus, 1758)]
SP Tarruella Ruestes, A. & Fontanet Giner, M. (2001): Moluscos marinos del Golf de Sant Jordi (L'Ampolla) y del Port dels Alfacs, Spira, 1(1): 1-5 [as Bolinus brandaris (Linnaeus, 1758)]
SP Tarruella Ruestes, A. (2002): Moluscos marinos de Cap Ras y Llançà (Girona, NE de la península Ibérica), Spira, 1(2): 1-14 [as Bolinus brandaris (Linnaeus, 1758)]

Contributions to BioLib

Help us to expand this encyclopedia! If you are logged in, you can add new subtaxa, vernacular and scientific names, texts, images or intertaxon relationships for this taxon.

Comments


Explanations

o original combination