Taxon profile


Conidae Rafinesque, 1815

kingdom Animalia - animals »  phylum Mollusca - mollusks »  class Gastropoda - gastropods »  order Neogastropoda »  superfamily Conoidea

Scientific synonyms

incl. Coninae Rafinesque, 1815


Radular tooth: Marginal tooth is differentiated into an anterior and posterior segment; most genera have an anterior fold; when present the basal spur is directed anteriorly; a waist, base and C-fold are present; all genera have either a terminating cusp, serrations between the barb and base of the tooth or an accessory process.
Shell characters: Shells are conical to biconical with anal notch on the shoulder; the anal notch is symmetrical or essentially absent but not L-shaped; the shell has extensive internal remodeling.
Discussion: This family is the 'large major clade' of Williams & Duda (2008) and 'clade 19' of Puillandre et al. (2008) (see Fig. 11). Not only is the family differentiated molecularly but the radular morphology is more derived than any of the genera included in other families. Nearly all of the genera of Conidae have the posterior fold developed into some sort of structure. The species that seem to be exceptions are Virroconus ebraeus and V. chaldaeus, which have simplified radular teeth (Kohn et al., 1999) compared to V. judaeus, which is an exception among the other species of Virroconus. V. judaeus has a typical Puncticuliinae n. subfam. radular morphology with serrations and a terminating cusp (Bergh, 1895).
Tucker, J.K. & Tenorio, M.J., 2009: Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods.

Interchangeable taxa

In Conidae and the other families that are included in the major clade Conoidea, the radula consists only of marginal teeth that are usually enrolled with completely overlapping edges (hypodermic). Teeth at their formation in the radular sac are already enrolled and they are attached to the radular membrane only by their bases, sometimes through a long flexible ligament. In the 'turrid families' with enrolled teeth, these are attached to the membrane along most of its length (Kantor & Taylor, 2000).
Source: Bouchet et all, 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda).


This is the Conidae of Taylor et al. (1993) and Puillandre et al. (2008). Our (see Source) classification concerns the 'true Conidae'. These are gastropods that are able to remodel the interior shell walls (Kohn et al, 1979). These include some genera often considered to be 'turrid'. For instance we include the genera Conorbis and Benthofascis both of which resorb the inner shell walls (von Koenen, 1865; Amitrov, 2008; Figs. 17A and 17B). We also include the genus Pseudoconorbis because it too resorbs the inner shell walls. We do not consider Genota or Genotina. Species in these genera belong to another as yet undescribed family of gastropods related to and possibly ancestral to the families that we do consider (Amitrov, 2008). We do not consider the borsonid genera such as Bathytoma and Borsonia. All of these do not resorb the shell of the inner whorls (Fig. 17F). We also exclude Cryptoconus, a close relative of Conorbis, for the same reason but we do include Hemiconus. We also do not include details on the Raphitomidae or the Clathurellidae, two other toxoglossate families that do not resorb the shell of the inner whorls. A reasonable question is 'Is the clade containing taxa with resorbed inner shell walls monophyletic?' We believe that they are. Our stem family Conorbiidae, which includes Artemidiconus, Benthofascis and Conorbis, seem to have evolved from a Cryptoconus ancestor. Unfortunately, Conorbis, Cryptoconus and Hemiconus are all extinct and we cannot know what their radulae looked like. However, the radular teeth of Benthofascis and Artemidiconus are simple and probably resemble the radulae of these extinct genera.
Source: Tucker, J.K. & Tenorio, M.J., 2009: Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods.
Author: Jan Delsing

Recently completed profiles

Conus advertex T. A. Garrard, 1961
Conus wallangra (Garrard, 1961) - Ocean Cone
Conus bruuni A. W. B. Powell, 1958
Conus bullatus Linnaeus, 1758
Conus axelrodi Walls, 1978
Conus australis Holten, 1802
Conus aurisiacus Linnaeus, 1758
Conus auratinus da Motta, 1982
Conus aulicus Linnaeus, 1758 - Court Cone
Conus augur Lightfoot, 1786

Included taxa

Number of records: 10

genus Californiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
genus Conasprella Thiele, 1929
genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758 - Cones
genus Kenyonia Brazier, 1896
genus Lilliconus Raybaudi Massilia, 1994
genus Malagasyconus Monnier & Tenorio, 2015
genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956
genus Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
genus Pygmaeconus Puillandre & Tenorio, 2017

Fossil taxa

genus Conilithes Swainson, 1840

Links and literature

CZ Pfleger V. (1999): České názvy živočichů III. Měkkýši (Mollusca), Národní muzeum, (zoologické odd.), Praha, 108 pp. [as Conidae]
Data retrieved on: 11 November 2013

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extinct taxon