CZ EN
HLEDAT  

Profil taxonu

čeleď

klipkovití
Chaetodontidae Rafinesque, 1815

říše Animalia - živočichové »  kmen Chordata - strunatci »  třída Actinopterygii - paprskoploutví »  řád Perciformes - ostnoploutví »  nadčeleď Percoidea

Obrázky

Chaetodon semilarvatus - klipka pološkrabošková

Chaetodon semilarvatus - klipka pološkrabošková

Autor: Zdeněk Sýkora

Forcipiger longirostris - klipka trubkotlamá

Forcipiger longirostris - klipka trubkotlamá

Autor: Vladimír Motyčka

Heniochus acuminatus - klipka hrotcová

Heniochus acuminatus - klipka hrotcová

Autor: Milan Kořínek
EN  

Popis

Diagnostic characters: Oval-shaped (excluding fins), deep-bodied, highly compressed percoid fishes (size to about 30 cm). Head length roughly equal to head height; preopercle smooth, without prominent spines. Eye moderately small, located just on or slighly above longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin. Snout length highly variable, ranging from very short to extremely elongate (Forcipiger). Mouth small, terminal, protractile, gape not extending to anterior rim of orbit. Teeth bristle-like, curved, arranged in rows or bands across jaws; vomer and palatines without teeth. Pseudobranchiae present; 6 or 7 branchiostegal rays. Gill rakers short, ranging from 9 to 25 in number. A single dorsal fin, continuous and relatively smooth in most species; usually with X to XIV strong, stout spines (but as few as VI in Parachaetodon and as many as XV or XVI in some species of Chaetodon and Hemitaurichthys), first few to several interspinous membranes deeply incised, species of Heniochus with extremely elongate and filamentous fourth dorsal-fin spine; no notch between spinous and soft dorsal fin; soft dorsal fin with 15 to 30 branched rays, some species with short horizontal filamentous extension of 1 or more soft dorsal-fin rays at dorsoposterior margin of fin. Anal fin with III to V strong, stout spines (usually III), interspinous membranes deeply incised; soft anal fin with 14 to 23 branched rays, margin usually rounded but sometimes angular. Pectoral fins transparent with 13 to 15 soft rays. Pelvic fins with I stout spine and 5 branched rays; scaly axillary process at upper base of pelvic fins. Caudal fin rounded to slightly emarginate, usually with 15 branched rays. Scales ctenoid, covering head, body, and median fins; largest in centre of body, smaller on head, thorax, belly, caudal peduncle, and median fins; number of lateral-line scales variable, ranging from 20 to 90 (depending on the genus). Vertebrae 11+13. Supraoccipital crest, predorsal bones, and first dorsal pterygiophore articulated.
Colour: most species very brightly coloured with complex and varied colour patterns; most frequent colours include shades of yellow, orange, black, and white; patterns usually include broad vertical bars, thin vertical stripes, cross-hatching patterns, spots, and dark soft dorsal- and anal-fin margins; almost without exception, the eye is obscured within a darkly coloured vertical ocular bar or dark region on the head; many species with a dark occellate “false-eye” spot on the posterior portion of the body.

Ekologie

Mostly on shallow coral reefs, but also common in lagoons and outer reef slopes to depths of 60 m or more. Species of the genera Roa and Prognathodes, and of the Chaetodon subgenus Roaops usually restricted to depths in excess of 60 m. Juveniles of many species frequently found in estuaries. Most species closely associated with the substratum, feeding on corals and other marine invertebrates; some species (particularly species of Hemitaurichthys) aggregate in midwater and feed on plankton.

Význam

Although sometimes harvested as food fishes, the primary fishery value of chaetodontids is through the ornamental marine aquarium trade, where they are the third most frequently exported fish by number, and second highest in total value of all families of aquarium fishes in trade.

Možné záměny

Pomacanthidae: similar in general body shape and colour pattern to Chaetodontidae, but easily distinguished in having at least 1 prominent spine at the angle of preopercle. Also, Pomacanthidae lack the scaly axillary process at the base of pelvic fins, lack the ocular bands and false-eye spots (except for a few species), do not have produced snouts, and have 16 to 21 pectoral-fin rays.

Acanthuridae: similar general body shape and some species with bright colours, but can easily be distinguished by the presence of a fixed or retractable sharp spine on the caudal peduncle, and typically have fewer dorsal-fin spines (IV to IX) than most species of Chaetodontidae.

Scatophagidae: distinguished from Chaetodontidae by a deep notch between the spinous and soft portion of the dorsal fin, and in having IV anal-fin spines.

Zanclidae: the monotypic Zanclus cornutus closely resembles some species of Heniochus, but is easily distinguished by a strongly produced snout, bony supraocular projections (in adults), and only VII dorsal-fin spines.

Microcanthidae: a single species, Microcanthus strigatus, likely to be confused with Chaetodontidae; it is most easily distinguished by its distinctive horizontally striped colour pattern.

Literatura

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1998, Carpenter, K.E.; Niem, V.H. (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae)
Autor: Petr Čech

Poslední zpracované profily

Chelmon rostratus (Linnaeus, 1758) - zobec obecný

Zařazené taxony

Počet záznamů: 12

rod Amphichaetodon Burgess, 1978 - klipka
rod Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 - klipka
rod Chelmon Cloquet, 1817 - zobec
rod Chelmonops Bleeker, 1876 - zobec
rod Coradion Kaup, 1860 - zobec
rod Forcipiger Jordan & McGregor, 1898 - klipka
rod Hemitaurichthys Bleeker, 1876 - klipka
rod Heniochus Cuvier, 1816 - klipka
rod Johnrandallia Nalbant, 1974 - klipka
rod Parachaetodon Bleeker, 1874 - klipka
rod Prognathodes Gill, 1862 - klipka
rod Roa Jordan, 1923 - klipka

Odkazy a literatura

CZ AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [family/209]

Plíštil J. (Ed.) (2009): AQUATAB. World Wide Web electronic publication [http://aquatab.net] [jako Chaetodontidae]
Datum citace: 17. leden 2010
EN Sheiko B.A. (2013): On family-group names of extant fishes and fish-like vertebrates of the world, Explorations of the fauna of the seas. St. Petersburg: Zoological Institute RAS. Vol. 74 (82). P. 1–204. [jako Chaetodontidae Rafinesque, 1815]
Datum citace: 23. listopad 2019
CZ Hanel L., Plíštil J., Novák J. (2011): České názvy živočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces). 7. Paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) Kostnatí (Neopterygii) [Ropušnicotvaří (Scorpaeniformes) – ostnoploutví (Perciformes) – Percoidei], Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha, 148 str. [jako Chaetodontidae]
Datum citace: 19. srpen 2019

Použité zdroje

Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.): FishBase

Možnosti podílení se na BioLibu

Jste-li v systému přihlášení, můžete k libovolnému taxonu přidat jméno či synonymum v libovolném jazyce (a nebo tak navrhnout opravu jména chybného), popisy taxonu nebo další podtaxony.

Komentáře