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Pusula Jousseaume, 1884

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Popis

DESCRIPTION
Shell size between 4 and almost 25 mm, circular or oval, usually callused. Ribs fully developed, less numerous, distant and in most species coarse. Dorsal sulcus in most cases wide and smooth, with the ribs sharply bisected and forming nodules or tubercles; spinous in some species. Spire retracted with a variable number of terminal ribs. Ventral and outer labral margin callused and usually edged. Aperture fairly wide. Labrum thickened to a variable degree. Labral teeth coarse and distant. Fossula developed. Shell dorsally beige to any shades of brown with usually three large brown patches on each side of the dorsal sulcus and many dots. Venlrum and margins more reddish or even more intense colour. Ribs usually white. The coloration in the fossil species is poorly preserved and has not been reported so far. It might have been coloured similar to the living taxa.
RADULA
Taenioglossate with the formula 2-1-1-1-2: Rachidian toolh rectangular and both margins very constricted. Base usually "M"-shaped. Outer edge variably provided with cusps though a broad cusp projects in the middle. Lateral tooth fairly complex, usually with a further prominent, pointed, inwardly directed cusp just above the main cusp. Smaller cusps follow in variable number. Marginal teeth usually simple, claw-like.
NATURAL HISTORY
The earliest members of the genus are known from the middle or late Miocene of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The rich deposits of the Miocene of W Europe and the Alum Bluff Formation of Florida do not provide any species of Pusula. Only in the early Pliocene did one taxon appear in the W Mediterranean Sea. Pusula experienced greater diversity in the late Pliocene with more than a half dozen species, but the greatest diversity is seen today.
Fehse D & Grego J - 2014 - Revision of the genus Pusula (Mollusca Gastropoda Triviidae)

Taxonomie

The species of Pusula can be arranged into four groups of species complexes. Assignment to each complex is based on the appearance of the dorsal sulcus, condition of dorsal ribs, and coloration of the shell:
1 radians-species-complex including the species alienigena, miamiensis, orientalis, radians, solandri, platyventer. The shell consists of a very wide and smooth dorsal sulcus that bisects the ribs. Occasionally the ribs form strong tubercles (solandri) around the sulcus. The dorsal coloration is rather uniform with the sulcus of lighter shades.
2 pediculus-species-complex from the NW Mediterranean, tropical to subtropical Atlantic, Caribbean, and tropical to subtropical E Pacific including the species bessei, cimex (pacei is a junior synonym), costispunctata, dadeensis, dalli, densistans, garciai, labiosa, lindajoyceae, pediculus, permagna and subpediculus. The shells have a fairly wide and smooth dorsal sulcus that bisects the dorsal ribs and the ribs forming tubercles around the sulcus. The shell colour is usually any shade of brown with dorsal patches and spots.
3 californiana-species-complex named herein as Pseudopusula gen. nov. from tropical and subtropical E Pacific and W Africa including the species californiana, canadensis, depauperata (dartevellei is a junior synonym), geigeri, parcicosta, praecursor, rota, and sanguinea. The dorsal sulcus is reduced to a depression. Ribs can be bisected at the sulcus. The shell colour is uniform with the dorsal ribs whitish.
The origin of the californiana-species-complex might be descended from P. praecursor sp. nov. of the middle Miocene of Italy. In the Pliocene the species occurred in the whole tropical to subtropical Atlantic and Caribbean. Nowadays there are two separate species groups: one is found at W Africa, and the second occurs at the NE Pacific. Future DNA research may or may not confirm that both groups have already been separated at the generic level. However, we refrain from a generic separation at this stage of knowledge.
4 vemacola-species-complex, named herein as Quasipusula gen. nov., from SE Atlantic with no dorsal sulcus.
Fehse D & Grego J - 2014 - Revision of the genus Pusula (Mollusca Gastropoda Triviidae)

Podřízené taxony

Počet záznamů: 10

druh Pusula bessei Petuch, 2013

Pusula bessei - 000000000111100

druh Pusula cimex (G. B. Sowerby II, 1870)

Pusula cimex - 000000000111000

druh Pusula costispunctata (Sowerby, 1870)

Pusula costispunctata - 000000000111000

druh Pusula garciai Fehse & Grego, 2014

Pusula garciai - 000000000111000

druh Pusula hybrida (Schilder, 1931)
druh Pusula labiosa (Gaskoin, 1836)

Pusula labiosa - 000000000011000

druh Pusula pediculus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pusula pediculus - 000000000111100

druh Pusula pullata (Sowerby, 1870)

Pusula pullata - 000000000011000

druh Pusula radians J. B. Lamarck, 1811 - trivia zářivá

Pusula radians - 000000000111

druh Pusula solandri (G.B. Sowerby I, 1832)

Pusula solandri - 000000000011000


Odkazy a literatura

EN The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera [1293584]

Rees, T. (compiler): The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera [http://www.irmng.org] [jako Pusula Jousseaume, 1884]
Datum citace: 30. listopad 2019

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Taxony (nepotvrzené) - 11
Komentáře - 1